Emilija Beker Pucar

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The paper aims to highlight the main difficulties on the monetary path towards the euro zone experienced by Emerging Europe. Emerging European Economies (EEEs), EU members, adopted either double shift or smooth transition monetary approach towards the euro zone. Double shift assumes changes from floating exchange rate regimes (ERRs) to the ERM II target zone and, finally, monetary union as a rigid ERR. The smooth transition is practiced by economies with mainly rigid ERRs before the ERM II entrance and, at the end, again rigid ERR of a monetary union. Despite chosen monetary path towards the euro zone, crucial difficulties or aggravating factors could be identified in the form of real exchange rate appreciation due to productivity growth or capital inflows. A reconciliation of inflation and exchange rate target zone is extremely complex, at the same time striving not to jeopardize the real convergence. What is stressed here is the vicious cycle between real and nominal convergence as the reason why the ERM II target should be regarded as a “waiting room“ not as a “training room“ in the pre-EMU phase. 


euro zone, emerging European economies, nominal convergence, real convergence, ERM II

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