Ivan Nikolic

DOI Number
First page
Last page


The intention of the author of this text is to explore deeply the meaning of the concept of critical thinking from the perspective of teaching philosophy. For the purpose, he concludes that the best point for developing critical thinking in the field of philosophy is actually between essentialism and perennialism. Starting from the assumption that philosophy, by teaching critical thinking, teaches students to be ‘rational judges’ and on the other hand ‘sensitive to context’, the author concludes that having skills and a developed attitude are equally important for such education. Educational essentialism will be observed from the point of view of the development of pre-reflective intentionality, by teaching logical and methodological structuring of problems, and educational perennialism as directing to the most important concepts of solving certain problems.


critical thinking, skills, attitude, essentialism, perennialism

Full Text:



Alston, Kal. "Re/Thinking Critical Thinking: The Seductions of Everyday Life." Studies in Philosophy and Education (Kluwer Academic Publishers), 2001: 27-40.

Aristotle. Nichomachean Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Ballantine, Glenda. Creativity and Critique. Subjectivity and Agency in Touraine and Ricoeur. Leiden, Boston: Brill, 2007.

Belenky, Mary Field, Blythe McVicker Clinchy, Nancy Rule Goldberger, and Jill Mattuck Tarule. Women s Ways of Knowing. The Development of Self, Voice and Mind. New York: Basic Books, 1997.

Bogdanovski, Mašan. „Primena misaonih eksperimenata u nastavi”. Elementi, časopis za promociju nauke, jesen 2018: 34–35.

Bowell, Tracy, and Gary Kemp. Critical Thinking. A Concise Guide. London and New York: Routledge, 2005.

Brentano, Franz. Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint. London-New York: Routledge, 1995.

Burgess, John P. Philosophical Logic. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton Univiersity Press, 2009.

Carr, Wilfred, and Stephen Kemmis. Becoming Critical. Education, Knowledge and Action Research. London: Routledge Farmer, 2004.

Cholbi, Michael. "Intentional Learning as a Model for Philosophical Pedagogy." Teaching Philosophy 30, no. 1 (March 2007): 35-58.

Cohen, LeoNora M. Educational Philosophies. 1999. (accessed September 15, 2018).

Cottrell, Stella. Critical Thinking Skills. Developing Effective Analysis and Argument. Hampshire and New York: PALGRAVE MACMILLAN, 2005.

Descartes, Rene. A Discourse on the Method. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

—. Meditations on First Philosophy. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

—. Regulae ad directionem ingenii - Rules for The Direction of The Natural Intelligence. Amsterdam-Atlanta: Rodopi, 1998.

Dilthey, Wilhelm. The Formation of the Historical World in the Human Sciences. Princeton, Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2002.

Dworkin, Ronald. Taking Rights Seriously. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1978.

Evers, Colin W. "Culture, Cognitive Pluralism and Rationality." In Critical Thinking and Learning, by Mark Mason, 25-43. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2008.

Galilej, Galileo. Spisi u odbranu Kopernikovog sistema. Beograd: Plato, 2010.

Gatchel, Richard H. "The evolution of the concept." In Concepts of Indoctrination, by I. A. Snook, 7-13. London and Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 2010.

Habermas, Jurgen. The Theory of Communicative Action, Reason and The Rationalization of Society. Boston: Beacon Press, 1984.

Hanson, Michael Hanchett. Worldmaking: Psychology and The Ideology of Creativity. New York : Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.

Hare, William. "Critical Thinking as an Aim of Education." In The Aims of Education, by Roger Marples, 85-99. London and New York: Routledge, 1999.

Heidegger, Martin. Of The Beaten Track. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Houtlosser, Peter. "Points of View." In Crucial Concepts in Argumentation Theory, by Frans H. van Eemeren, 27-51. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2001.

Husserl, Edmund. The Idea of Phenomenolgy. Dodrecht, Boston, London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999.

Kant, Immanuel. Anthropology, History and Education. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. (accessed December 25, 2016).

Macmillan Dictionary. (accessed December 25, 2016).

Malmgren, Kimber W., Beverly J. Trezek, and Peter V. Paul. "Models of Classroom Management as Applied to the Secondary Classroom." The Clearing House 79, no. 1 (September/October 2005): 36-39.

Marinkovic, Josip. Filozofija kao nastava. Zagreb: Hrvatsko filozofsko društvo, 1990.

Mason, Mark. "Critical Thinking and Learning." In Critical Thinking and Learning, by Mark Mason, 1-11. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2008.

Paris, N. A. Major educational philosophies. (accessed September 15, 2018).

Paul, Richard W., and Linda Elder. Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Professional and Personal Life. New Jersey: Financial Times Prentice Hall, 2002.

Phelan, Anne M. "The Death of a Child and the Birth of Practical Wisdom." Studies in Philosophy and Education (Kluwer Academic Publishers), 2001: 41-55.

Thayer-Bacon, Barbara J. "Radical Democratic Communities Always-in-the-Making." Studies in Philosophy and Education (Kluwer Academic Publishers), 2001: 5-25.

van Eemeren, Frans H., and Rob Grootendorst. Speech Acts in Argumentative Discussions. Dordrecht, Cinnaminsom: FORIS PUBLICATION, 1984.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

© University of Niš, Serbia
Creative Commons licence CC BY-NC-ND
Print ISSN: 0353-7919
Online ISSN: 1820-7804