Darko Dimovski

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The author deals with the case law of the European Court of Human Rights with regard to hate crimes. The paper presents and analyzes the Court judgments entailing the obligation to examine the existence of prejudice in the committed offenses, envisaged in Articles 2, 3 and 8 in conjunction with Article 14 of the Convention. The Court’s case-law initially pertained to hate crimes committed by state authorities, but it subsequently evolved to cover hate crimes committed by individuals. At the end of the paper, the author presents a normative framework of hate crimes in the Republic of Serbia and points out to the shortcomings in the mode of incrimination, as well as to the problem of not applying the standards established by the Court in investigating the existence of possible prejudice in the committed crimes.


hate crime, European Court of Human Rights, practice, Republic of Serbia

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Dimovski, D., Jovanović, M. (2019), Romi kao žrtve povrede člana 2 Evropske Konvencije o zaštiti ljudskih prava i osnovnih sloboda“, Roma people as victims of violation of Article 2 ECHR, 5-th International Scientific Conference Ohrid School of Law, Abuse of the Law and “Abnormal” Law Versus Rule of Law, Skopje: Institute for Legal-Economic Research and Education Iuridica Prima, Ohrid;

BBC: Dug put do prve presude za zločin iz mržnje, A long way to the first judgment on hate crimes,, 29. фебруар 2020.

Temperman, J. (2015), Religious Hatred and International Law: The Prohibition of Incitement to Violence or Discrimination, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge;

UN FRA: Unmasking bias motives in crimes: selected cases of the European Court of Human Rights, European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, Vienna 2018;


Krivični zakonik Criminal Code of R. Serbia,"Sl. glasnik RS“, br. 85/2005, 88/2005 - ispr., 107/2005 - ispr., 72/2009, 111/2009, 121/2012, 104/2013, 108/2014, 94/2016 i 35/2019.

Opšte obavezno uputstvo Republičkog javnog tužioca General Mandatory Instruction to the Republic Public Prosecutor on Hate Crimes, О.бр. 4/2018 od 28.09.2018.

Warsaw Declaration of the Council of Europe,, 19. februar2020;

Zakon o zabrani diskriminacije Act on the Prohibition of Discrimination, "Sl. glasnik RS", br. 22/2009.

Case law

Angelova and Iliev v. Bulgaria, application no, 55523/00;

B.S. v. Spain, application no 47159/08;

Bekos and Koutropoulos v. Greece, application no 15250/02;

Ciorcan and others v. Romania, application no 29414/09 i 44841/09;

Đorđević v. Croatia, application no 41526/10;

Identoba and Others v. Georgia, application no 73235/12;

Menson and Others v. UK, application no 47916/99;

Milanović v. Serbia, application no 44614/07;

Mižigárová v. Slovakia, application no 74832/01;

Mudric v. the Republic of Moldova, application no 74839/10;

Nachova and others v. Bulgaria, application no 43577/98 i 43579/98;

Ognyanova and Choban v. Bulgariа, application no 46317/00;

Paul and Audrey Edwards v. the United Kingdom, application no 46477/99;

R.B. v. Hungary, application no 64602/12;

Šečić v. Croatia, application no 40116/02;

Škorjanec v. Croatia, application no 25536/14;

Vasil Sashov Petrov v. Bulgaria, application no 63106/00;

Virabyan v. Armenia, application no 40094/05.



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