Miloš Marjanović, Rastko S Marković, Nemanja Tomić, Ninoslav Golubović, Zlatko Langović, Aleksandar R Radivojević

DOI Number
First page
Last page


The promotion of fortified towns, as Serbia’s significant cultural heritage, represents a major element of tourism development. The main goals of this paper are to highlight the tourism potential of fortifications in Serbia and to investigate the prospect of creating a cultural route of fortified towns. The route is comprised of six fortresses. This article applies CREM (Cultural Route Evaluation Model) to assess the tourism potential of fortified towns and the possibility of linking them in a thematic route. The CREM model provided principal information about the possibilities of developing cultural routes, and details about the sites’ requirements. Furthermore, it identified the main areas in need of improvement at each fortress to be visited by a substantial number of tourists in the upcoming period.


Cultural tourism, Serbia, fortress, Cultural route, cultural heritage evaluation, CREM model

Full Text:



Ahmetović, T. (1994). Tourism assessment of cultural and historical monuments — Case study Monasteries of Fruška Gora Mountain. Researches Review of the Institute for Geography, 24, 159–172.

Antić, A., Tomić, N., Đorđević, T., & Marković, S. (2021). Promoting palaeontological heritage of mammoths in Serbia through a cross-country thematic route. Geoheritage, 13(1), 1-16.

Belij, S., Ilinčić, M., Belij, J., & Belij, M. (2014). Sustainable planning and tourism development policy exemplified by medieval fortresses along the river Danube. Glasnik Srpskog geografskog drustva, 94(3), 69-82.

Benfield, R. W. (2001). Good things come to those who wait: Sustainable tourism and timed entry at Sissinghurst Castle Garden, Kent. Tourism Geographies, 3(2), 207-217.

Berti, E. (2015). The cultural context: fundamental resolutions and conventions at the European and international level. In Council of Europe, Cultural Routes Management: From Theory to Practice (pp. 23-33), Strasbourg, Council of Europe Publishing.

Besermenji, S., Pivac, T., & Wallrabenstein, K. (2009). Significance of the Authentic Ambience of the Petrovaradin Fortress on the Attractiveness of EXIT Festival. Geographica Pannonica, 13(2), 66-74.

Blagojević, M. R., Milošević, G., Milić, R. J., & Nikolić, M. (2013). A new life of the Ottoman fortress Ram. Journal of cultural heritage, 14(3), 20-24.

Boateng, H., Okoe, A. F., & Hinson, R. E. (2018). Dark tourism: Exploring tourist's experience at the Cape Coast Castle, Ghana. Tourism management perspectives, 27, 104-110.

Bogacz-Wojtanowska, E., Góral, A., & Bugdol, M. (2019). The role of trust in sustainable heritage management networks. case study of selected cultural routes in Poland. Sustainability, 11(10), 2844.

Bogacz-Wojtanowska, E., & Góral, A. (2018). Networks or structures? Organizing cultural routes around heritage values. Case studies from Poland. Humanistic Management Journal, 3(2), 253-277.

Božić, S., & Tomić, N. (2016). Developing the cultural route evaluation model (CREM) and its application on the Trail of Roman Emperors, Serbia. Tourism management perspectives, 17, 26-35.

Bratić, M., Marjanović, M., Raivojević, A., Pavlović M. (2021). Motivation and segmentation of tourists in rural areas: case study of Serbia. Teme, 3, 867-883.

Chen, G., & Huang, S. (2018). Understanding Chinese cultural tourists: Typology and profile. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 35(2), 162-177.

Council of Europe. Impact of European Cultural Routes on SMEs' Innovation and Competitiveness: Provisional Edition. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing. (2011).

Czifra, S., Pálinkás, A., Márkus, Z. L., Szkaliczki, T., Veres, M., & Weisz, Z. (2019). Smart Solutions for Guided Cultural Routes along the Iron Age Archaeological Sites of the Danube Basin. Digital Presentation and Preservation of Cultural and Scientific Heritage, 9, 43-54.

du Cros, H. (2001). A new model to assist in planning for sustainable cultural heritage tourism. Int J Tour Res, 3, 165–170.

Erhartič, B. (2010). Geomorphosite assessment. Acta Geographica Slovenica, 50(2), 295–319.

Gajete, J. M. M., Rojas, R. H., & Millán, M. G. D. (2018). Turismo de Castillos y fortalezas: La ruta de los templarios en España. International journal of scientific management and tourism, 4(1), 469-484.

Graf, M., & Popesku, J. (2016). Cultural routes as innovative tourism products and possibilities of their development. International Journal of Cultural and Digital Tourism, 3(1), 24-44.

Koo, S., Kim, J., Kim, C., Kim, J., & Cha, H. S. (2019). Development of an augmented reality tour guide for a cultural heritage site. Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage, 12(4), 1-24.

Laing, J.,Wheeler, F., Reeves, K., & Frost, W. (2014). Assessing the experiential value of heritage assets: a case study of a Chinese heritage precinct, Bendigo, Australia. Tour Manag, 40, 180–192.

Lečić, N., Mitković, P., & Manić, B. (2017). Tourist valorisation of medieval fortresses along the Danube river: From the Serbian perspective. Facta Universitatis, Series: Architecture and Civil Engineering, 15(3), 465-475.

Lourens, M. (2007). Route tourism: a roadmap for successful destinations and local economic development. Development Southern Africa, 24, 475–490.

Marina, L., Muntean, A., & Stefani, C. (2009). Development directions for the tourism offer of the Alba Iulia Fortress. Qualitative assessments. Annales Universitatis Apulensis: Series Oeconomica, 11(2), 1041.

Marjanović, M., Radivojević A.R., Antić, A., Peppoloni S., Di Capua, G., Lazarević, J., Marković, R., Tomić, N., Milićević, A., Langović, Z., Mišić, I., & Marković, S. B. (2022a). Geotourism and geoethics as support for rural development in the Knjaževac municipality, Serbia. Open Geosciences, 14(1), 794-812.

Marjanović, M., Milenković, J., Lukić, M., Tomić, N., Antić, A., Marković, R. S., Atanasijević, J., Božić, D., Buhmiler, S., Radaković, M., Radivojević, A., Milićević, A., Gavrilov, M., & Marković, S. B. (2022b). Geomorphological and hydrological heritage of Mt. Stara Planina in SE Serbia: From river protection initiative to potential geotouristic destination. Open Geosciences, 14(1), 275-293.

Marjanović, M., Tomić, N., Radivojević, A. R., & Marković, S. B. (2021). Assessing the geotourism potential of the Niš city area (Southeast Serbia). Geoheritage, 13(3), 1-18.

Mason, R. (2002). Assessing values in conservation planning: methodological issues and choices. In M. De la Torre (Ed.), Assessing the values of cultural heritage (5–30). Research report. Los Angeles: The Getty Conservation Institute.

McKercher, B. (2020). Cultural tourism market: a perspective paper, Tourism Review, 75 (1), 126-129.

McKercher, R., & Ho, P. (2006). Assessing the tourism potential of smaller cultural and heritage attractions. J Sustain Tour, 14, 473–488

Meyer, D. (2004). Tourism routes and gateways: Key issues for the development of tourism routes and gateways and their potential for Pro-Poor Tourism. London: Overseas Development Institute.

Morar, C., Grama, V., Stupariu, I. M., Nagy, G., Boros, L., Tiba, Al., Gozner, M., & Szabo-Alexi, S. (2020). Local perspectives over cultural tourism to heritage sites: the case study of Oradea Fortress (Romania). GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites, 33, 1470-1479.

Muzaini, H., Teo, P., & Yeoh, B. S. (2007). Intimations of postmodernity in dark tourism: The fate of history at Fort Siloso, Singapore. Journal of tourism and Cultural Change, 5(1), 28-45.

Pavluković, V., Nikić, B., & Stankov, U. (2020). Local residents’attitudes towards cycling tourism in the upper Danube region (Serbia). Teme, XLIV(3), 913-928.

Pattanaro, G., & Pistocchi, F. (2016). Linking destinations through sustainable cultural routes. Symphonya. Emerging Issues in Management, 1, 83-96.

Pereira, P., Pereira, D., & Caetano Alves, M.I. (2007). Geomorphosite assessment in Montesinho Natural Park (Portugal). Geogr Helvetica, 62, 159–168.

Pralong, J.P. (2005). A method for assessing the tourist potential and use of geomorphological sites. Géomorphologie: Relief, processus, environnement, 3, 189–196.

Radosavljević, U., & Kuletin Ćulafić, I. (2019). Use of cultural heritage for place branding in educational projects: The case of Smederevo and Golubac fortress on the Danube. Sustainability, 11(9), 5234.

Rakocija, J. M. (2013). The Fortress in the Center of the City-Nis, Serbia: Urban Landscape Architecture for the Historical and Cultural Site (No. GRI-2014-12703). Master’s thesis. Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Retrived from

Reynard, E., Fontana, G., Kozlik, L., & Scapozza, C. (2007). A method for assessing “scientific” and “additional values” of geomorphosites. Geogr Helvetica, 62, 148–158.

Richards, G. (2018). Cultural tourism: A review of recent research and trends. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 36, 12-21.

Sanches, M., Secomandi, E., Scherer, M., & de Castro, A. V. (2009). Tourism in Fortress: the Process of Creating a Latin American Network. Journal of Coastal Research, 56, 1150-1153.

Santa, E. D., & Tiatco, A. (2019). Tourism, heritage and cultural performance: Developing a modality of heritage tourism. Tourism Management Perspectives, 31, 301-309.

Sarmento, J. (2010). Fort Jesus: guiding the past and contesting the present in Kenya. Tourism Geographies, 12(2), 246-263.

Severo, M. (2017). European Cultural Routes: Building a Multi‐Actor Approach. Museum International, 69(1-2), 136-145.

Sharma, M. (2008). Forts of Rajasthan and recent tourist inclinations. South Asian Journal of Tourism and Heritage, 1(1), 87-90.

Song, H., Park, C., & Kim, M. (2020). Tourism Destination Management Strategy for Young Children: Willingness to Pay for Child-Friendly Tourism Facilities and Services at a Heritage Site. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(19), 7100.

Song, H., & Kim, H. (2019). Value-based profiles of visitors to a world heritage site: The case of Suwon Hwaseong Fortress (in South Korea). Sustainability, 11(1), 132.

Stoddart, H., & Rogerson, C. (2009). Tourism routes, local economic promotion and propoor development: The case of the Crocodile Ramble. Africa Insight, 38(4), 10–26.

Stanojlović, A., Ćurčić, N., & Pavlović, N. (2010). Tourism valorisation of site 'Lazar's town' in Kruševac. Journal of the Geographical Institute" Jovan Cvijic", SASA, 60(2), 77-92.

Timothy, D., & Boyd, S. (2006). Heritage tourismin the 21st century: valued traditions and new perspectives. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 1(1), 1–16.

Tomić, N., & Božić, S. (2014). A modified geosite assessment model (MGAM) and its application on the Lazar Canyon area (Serbia). Int J Environ Res, 8(4), 1041–1052.

Tomić, N. (2011). The potential of Lazar Canyon (Serbia) as a geotourism destination: inventory and evaluation. Geographica Pannonica, 15, 103–112. 10.5937/GeoPan1103103T

Tomka, D. (1994). Tourism assessment of cultural and historical monuments–case study monasteries of Fruška Gora Mountain. Res Rev Instit Geogr, 24, 159–172

Throsby, D. (2006). The value of cultural heritage: what can economics tell us? In K. Clark (Ed.), Capturing the public value of heritage (pp. 40–43). London: English Heritage.

Tuan, H. T., & Navrud, S. (2008). Capturing the benefits of preserving cultural heritage. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 9, 326–337.

Vaništa Lazarevic, E., Komatina, D., Maric, J., & Vucur, A. (2019). Valorisation and revitalization of heritage alongside Danube river: case study of Smederevo castle. In Places and technologies 2019: keeping up with technologies to turn built heritage into the places of future generations: conference proceeding: 6th international academic conference, Pécs, Hungary, 9-10 May 2019 (pp. 410-419). Pécs: University of Pécs Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology.

Vuksanović, N., Tešanović, D., Demirović, D., & Kalenjuk, B. (2019). Experiencing destination through local food and beverages – the case study of Republic of Serbia. Teme, XLIII(2), 439-453.

World Tourism Organization. Tourism and Culture Synergies, UNWTO, Madrid, (2018).

Zaraś-Januszkiewicz, E., Botwina, J., Żarska, B., Swoczyna, T., & Krupa, T. (2020). Fortresses as specific areas of urban greenery defining the uniqueness of the urban cultural landscape: Warsaw Fortress—a case study. Sustainability, 12(3), 1043.

Zouros, N.C. (2007). Geomorphosite assessment and management in protected areas of Greece. The case of the Lesvos island coastal geomorphosites. Geogr Helvetica, 62, 169–180.; (accessed on 22.09.2022). (accessed 23.09.2022) (accessed 23.09.2022) (Accessed 23.09.2022.) (accessed 23.09.2022) (accessed 23.09.2022) danube (accessed 23.09.2022.) (accessed 23.09.2022.)



© University of Niš, Serbia
Creative Commons licence CC BY-NC-ND
Print ISSN: 0353-7919
Online ISSN: 1820-7804