Marija Trajković, Branislava Popović-Ćitić, Luka Mijatović

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A sense of school belonging is considered a protective and promotive factor for a wide range of academic and developmental outcomes of students. However, previous research efforts were overly focused on examining the factors and processes that underlie it, and the available literature identifies a lack of a clear model of action that school actors should apply in order to improve it and, consequently, enjoy its benefits. The main goal of this paper is the analysis of relevant literature, with the aim of identifying the factors that contribute to the development of a sense of school belonging among students. In accordance with the basic principles of the adapted Bronfenbrenner’s bio-psycho-socio-ecological model of school belonging, the findings of the conducted review indicate that the sense of school belonging is of a systemic nature, and that its development and intensity are determined by multiple experiences, interactions and factors that usually exist on the individual, school-relational and contextual level. Although the paper provides preliminary insights into the factors that contribute to the development of a sense of school belonging, further research into these factors, which will examine their predictive effect, provide the possibility of defining a clear model of action, and represent a starting point for designing adequate interventions, is necessary. 


school belonging, individual factors, school factors, bio-psycho-socio-ecological model.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22190/TEME220805024T


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