Marina Kovačević Lepojević, Lidija Bukvić Branković, Branislava Popović-Ćitić, Ana Paraušić Marinković, Marija Trajković

DOI Number
First page
Last page


The study aimed to examine the implementation of social teaching practices (STP) in primary schools in Serbia during the COVID-19 pandemic. We explored how the flexibility of STP relates to teachers’ socioemotional competencies (SEC), general teaching difficulties during the pandemic, their satisfaction with the education system, and perception of professional future on a sample of 817 teachers. Research findings suggest that those teachers with higher SEC, less teaching difficulties, and those who are more satisfied with the education system and more optimistic about their professional future implement more STPs. Differences in STPs were also found regarding the teachers’ gender, education cycle, and teaching modality. The study indicated that use of STPs by teachers in times of crisis can be empowered with diverse support opportunities through professional development.


socioemotional learning (SEL), social teaching practice, pandemic education, primary school.

Full Text:



Aladrović Slovaček, K., & Matković, A. (2020). Croatian teachers during COVID-19 pandemic. Studies in Educational Management, 7, 28-38. doi: 10.32038/sem.2020.07.03

Allen, R., Jerrim, J., & Sims, S. (2020). How did the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic affect teacher wellbeing? (CEPEO Working Paper No. 20-15). London: UCL Institute of Education, Centre for Education Policy and Equalising Opportunities.

Alves, R., Lopes, T., & Precioso, J. (2021). Teachers' well-being in times of COVID-19 pandemic: Factors that explain professional well-being. IJERI: International Journal of Educational Research and Innovation, 8(1), 203-217. doi: 10.46661/ijeri.5120

Amri, A., Abidli, Z., Elhamzaoui, M., Bouzaboul, M., Rabea, Z., & Ahami, A. O. T. (2020). Assessment of burnout among primary teachers in confinement during the COVID-19 period in Morocco: Case of the Kenitra. The Pan African Medical Journal, 35(2), 92. doi: 10.11604/pamj.supp.2020.35.2.24345

Asbury, K., & Kim, L. (2020). “Lazy, lazy teachers”: Teachers’ perceptions of how their profession is valued by society, policymakers, and the media during COVID-19. PsyArXiv. doi: 10.31234/osf.io/65k8q

Bergdahl, N., & Nouri, J. (2020). COVID-19 and crisis-prompted distance education in Sweden. Technology, Knowledge and Learning. doi: 10.1007/s10758-020-09470-6

Cefai, C., Bartolo P. A., Cavioni, V., & Downes, P. (2018). Strengthening social and emotional education as a core curricular area across the EU: A review of the international evidence (NESET II report). Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Cho, V., Mansfield, K. C., & Claughton, J. (2020). The past and future technology in classroom management and school discipline: A systematic review. Teaching and Teacher Education, 90, 1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2020.103037

Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL). (2020). CASEL’s SEL framework: What are the core competence areas and where are they promoted? Retrieved from https://casel.org/casel-sel-framework-11-2020/

Coyne-Foresi, M., & Nowicki, E. (2021). Building connections and relationships at school: Youth reflect on mentoring their younger peers. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 41(2), 332-362. doi: 10.1177%2F0272431620912472

Dutmer, E., & Academies, C. (2020). Teaching as consolation: Re-imagining the teacher-student dynamic in times of emergency. Teaching Classical Languages, 11(2), 15-33.

Fernández-Prados, J. S., Lozano-Díaz, A., & Muyor-Rodríguez, J. (2021). Factors explaining social resilience against COVID-19: The case of Spain. European Societies, 23(1), S111-S121. doi: 10.1080/14616696.2020.1818113

Gueldner, B. A., Feuerborn, L. L., & Merrell, K. W. (2020). Social and emotional learning in the classroom: Promoting mental health and academic success. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Gulo, E. S. W. WD. (2020). Classroom rules and procedure implementation in preventing the students' disruptive behavior in online class Bachelor thesis, Universitas Pelita Harapan. Retrieved from http://repository.uph.edu/id/eprint/12544

Đerić, I. (2021). Podrška tokom nastave i učenja na daljinu u vreme COVID-19 krize: perspektiva stručnih saradnika. Support during distance learning in time of COVID-19 crisis: perspective of professional associates. In I. Jeremić, N. Nikolić & N. Koruga (Eds.), Vaspitanje i obrazovanje u digitalnom društvu Education in digital society (pp. 25-37). Beograd: Filozofski fakultet Univerziteta u Beogradu, Pedagoško društvo Srbije.

Hadar, L. L., Ergas, O., Alpert, B., & Ariav, T. (2020). Rethinking teacher education in a VUCA world: Student teachers’ social-emotional competencies during the COVID-19 crisis. European Journal of Teacher Education, 43(4), 573-586. doi: 10.1080/02619768.2020.1807513

Halper, L. R., Cowgill, C. M., & Rios, K. (2019). Gender bias in caregiving professions: The role of perceived warmth. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 49(9), 549-562. doi: 10.1111/jasp.12615

Jennings, P. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (2009). The prosocial classroom: Teacher social and emotional competence in relation to student and classroom outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 79(1), 491-525. doi: 10.3102%2F0034654308325693

Jensen, E. (2021, February 3). The relationship-building tool the pandemic cannot take away. Jensen Learning. Retrieved from https://www.jensenlearning.com

Jones, A. L., & Kessler, M. A. (2020). Teachers’ emotion and identity work during a pandemic. Frontiers in Education, 5, Article 583775. doi: 10.3389/feduc.2020.583775

Kamei, A., & Harriott, W. (2021). Social emotional learning in virtual settings: Intervention strategies. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 13(3), 365-371.

Khlaif, Z. N., Salha, S., Affouneh, S., Rashed, H., & ElKimishy, L. A. (2020). The Covid-19 epidemic: teachers’ responses to school closure in developing countries. Technology, Pedagogy and Education. doi: 10.1080/1475939X.2020.1851752

Košir, K., Dugonik, Š., Huskić, A., Gračner, J., Kokol, Z., & Krajnc, Ž. (2020). Predictors of perceived teachers’ and school counsellors’ work stress in the transition period of online education in schools during the COVID-19 pandemic. Educational Studies. doi: 10.1080/03055698.2020.1833840

Kozina, A., Vidmar, M., Veldin, M., Pivec, T., & Peras, I. (2021). The role of emotional competencies in psychological responding to COVID-19 pandemic. Psihologija. Advance online publication. doi: 10.2298/PSI200723006K

Lathifah, Z. K., Helmanto, F., & Maryani, N. (2020). The practice of effective classroom management in COVID-19 time. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 29(7), 3263-3271.

Lepp, L., Aaviku, T., Leijen, l., Pedaste, M., & Saks, K. (2021). Teaching during COVID-19: The decisions made in teaching. Education Science, 11(2), 2-21. doi: 10.3390/educsci11020047

Literat, I. (2021). “Teachers act like we’re robots”: TikTok as a window into youth experiences of online learning during COVID-19. AERA Open, 7(1), 1-15. doi: 10.1177%2F2332858421995537

Matiz, A., Fabbro, F., Paschetto, A., Cantone, D., Paolone, A. R., & Crescentini, C. (2020). Positive impact of mindfulness meditation on mental health of female teachers during the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(18), 2-22. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17186450

Miller, K. E. (2021). A light in students' lives: K-12 teachers' experiences (re)building caring relationships during remote learning. Online Learning, 25(1), 115-134. doi: 10.24059/olj.v25i1.2486

Oberle, E., & Schonert-Reichl. K. A. (2016). Stress contagion in the classroom? The link between classroom teacher burnout and morning cortisol in elementary school students. Social Science & Medicine, 159, 30-37. doi: https://doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.04.031

Pavin, T., Rijavec, M. & Miljević-Riđičk, R. (2005). Percepcija kvalitete obrazovanja učitelja i nastavnika i nekih aspekata učiteljske i nastavničke profesije iz perspektive osnovnoškolskih učitelja i nastavnika. Perception of the quality of teacher education and some aspects of the teaching profession from the perspective of primary school teachers. In V. Vizek Vidović, (Eds.), Cjeloživotno obrazovanje učitelja i nastavnika: višestruke perspektive Lifelong education of teachers: multiple perspectives (pp. 92-124). Zagreb: Institut za društvena istraživanja.

Pyhältö, K., Pietarinen, J., Haverinen, K., Tikkanen, L., & Soini, T. (2020). Teacher burnout profiles and proactive strategies. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 36, 219-242. doi: 10.1007/s10212-020-00465-6

Reeves, T. C., & Reeves, P. M. (2015). Educational technology research in a VUCA world. Educational Technology, 55(2), 26-30.

Rodriguez, V., Solis, S. L., Mascio, B., Gouley , K.K., Jennings, P.A., & Brotman, L.M. (2020). With awareness comes competency: The five awarenesses of teaching as a framework for understanding teacher social-emotional competency and well-being. Early Education and Development, 31(7), 940-972. doi: 10.1080/10409289.2020.1794496

Ryan, T. (2021). Designing video feedback to support the socioemotional aspects of online learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 69(1), 137-140. doi: 10.1007/s11423-020-09918-7

Santibañez, L., & Guarino, C. M. (2021). The effects of absenteeism on academic and social- emotional outcomes: Lessons for COVID-19. Educational Researcher, 20(10), 1-9. doi: 10.3102/0013189X21994488

Searles, A. (2020, April 7). Prioritising care and compassion in learning and teaching during the COVID-19 crisis. Griffith University. Retrieved from https://blogs.griffith.edu.au

Sequeira, L., & Dacey, C. M. (2020). The COVID-19 diaries: Identity, teaching, and tearning at a crossroads. Frontiers in Education, 5, Article 586123. doi: 10.3389/feduc.2020.586123

Tošić-Radev, M., & Pešikan, A. (2017). ‘Komadić koji nedostaje’ u procesu obrazovanja – socioemocionalno učenje. ’The missing piece’ in the educational process – Social and emotional learning. Nastava i vaspitanje Teaching and education, 66(1), 37-54. doi: 10.5937/nasvas1701037T

Weissberg, R. P., Durlak, J. A., Domitrovich, C. E., & Gullotta, T. P. (2015). Social and emotional learning: Past, present, and future. In J. A. Durlak, C. E. Domitrovich, R. P. Weissberg, & T. P. Gullotta (Eds.), Handbook of social and emotional learning: Research and practice (pp. 3-19). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Yoder, N. (2014a). Teaching the whole child: Instructional practices that support social emotional learning in three teacher evaluation frameworks. Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research, Center on Great Teachers and Leaders.

Yoder, N. (2014b). Self-assessing social and emotional instruction and competencies: A tool for teachers. Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research, Center on Great Teachers and Leaders.

Yoder, N., & Gurke, D. (2017). Social and emotional learning coaching toolkit: Keeping SEL at the center. Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research.

Yoder, N., Posamentier, J., Godek, D., Seibel, K., & Dusenbury, L. (2020). From response to reopening: State efforts to elevate social and emotional learning during the pandemic. Chicago, IL: Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL), Committee for Children.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22190/TEME230120002K


  • There are currently no refbacks.

© University of Niš, Serbia
Creative Commons licence CC BY-NC-ND
Print ISSN: 0353-7919
Online ISSN: 1820-7804