TIME PERSPECTIVE AND SELF-CONTROL IN HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES

Aleksandra Kostić

DOI Number
https://doi.org/10.22190/TEME180412019K
First page
275
Last page
291

Abstract


The aim of this research is to examine the relation between time perspectives and self-control in final-year high school students. Time perspective refers to the importance an individual gives to their past, present or future. Self-control represents a conscious intention of an individual to control his/her emotions, thoughts and behaviour. The basic research problem which we have set refers to determining the prognostic capabilities of time perspectives in explaining self-control in our sample. The research included 110 fourth-grade students from grammar school, high school of economics and high school of technology. The gender structure consists of 38 (34.5%) males and 72 (65.5%) females. The dimensions of time perspectives are operationalized by a short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI-short) with 18 items, by Kostal et al. (2015). The scale has six factors – Positive Past and Negative Past, Hedonistic Present and Fatalistic Present and Positive Future and Negative Future. Each factor is determined by three items. The reliability of the entire test on our sample is α=0.73. The construct of self-control is operationalized by a Self-Control Scale, created by Tangney, Baumeister & Boone (2004). The scale has one factor and includes 13 items. The reliability of the test on our sample is α=0.67. The results have confirmed that there is a significant predictor relation (p < 0.05) between time perspectives and self-control in high school graduates. The assumed model explains 21.4% of variance of self-control in final-year high school students. Out of the dimensions of time perspectives, two are statistically significant for explaining the variance of self-control – the Hedonistic Present β = -.404 and a Positive Orientation toward the Future β = .220. The obtained results are logical and they indicate that students who tend to enjoy the present have lower self-control, while those who believe in the positive future have higher self-control.


Keywords

time perspective, self-control, high-school graduates

Full Text:

PDF (Cрпски)

References


Barber, L. K., Munz, D. C., Bagsby, P. G., & Grawitch, M. J. (2009). When does time perspective matter? Self-control as a moderator between time perspective and academic achievement. Personality and Individual Differences, 46, 250–253.

Baumeister, R. F. (2012). Need-to-belong theory. In P. Van Lange, A. Kruglanski, & E.T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of social psychological theories ,Vol. 2, pp. 121–140. London, UK: Sage.

Baumeister, R. F., & Alquist, J. L. (2009). Is there a downside to good self-control? Self and Identity, 8, 115–130. doi: 10.1080/15298860802501474.

Baumeister, R. F., & Tierney, J. (2011). Willpower: Rediscovering the greatest human strength. New York: Penguin Press.

Baumeister, R. F., Vohs, K. D., & Tice, D. M. (2007). The strength model of self-control. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 351–355.

Boniwell, I. (2008). Positive psychology in a nutshell. (2nd ed.). London: PWBC.

Casey, B.J., Jones, R.M., Hare, T.A. (2008). The adolescent brain. Developmental review, 28 (1): 62-77.

De Volder, M. (1979). Time orientation: A review. Psychologica Belgica, 19, 61–79.

Dunkel, D.S. & Weber, J.L. (2010). Using Three Levels of Personality to Predict Time Perspective. Current psychology, 29(2):95-103.

Ein-Gar, D. & Sagiv, L. (2014). Overriding “doing wrong” and “not doing right”: Validation of the dispositional self-control scale (DSC). Journal of personality assessment, 96 (6), 640-653.

Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Guthrie, I. K., Murphy, B. C, Maszk, P.,Holmgren, R., & Sun, K. (1996). The relations of regulation and emo-tionality to problem behavior in elementary school children. Develop-ment and Psychopathology, 8, 141-162.

Fieulaine, N. & Martinez, F. (2011). About the fuels of self-regulation: Time perspective and desire for control in adolescents substance use. In Psychology of Self-regulaiton (Eds. Barkoukis,V.) pp.102-121.

Fox, N. & Calkins. S. (2003). The Development of Self-Control of Emotion: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Influences. Motivation and Emotions March 2003, Volume 27, 1, 7–26.

Fraisse, P. (1963). Psychology of time. New York: Harper & Row.

Fudenberg, D. and Levine, D.K. (2006). A Dual-Self Model of Impulse Control. American Economic Review, 96(5), 1449-1476.

Fujita, K., Trope, Y., Liberman, N., Levin-Sagi, M. (2006). Construal levels and self-control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90 (3):351-67.

Golovakina, E. I., & Kronick, A. A. (1989). Psihologichesloje vryemya lichnostyi. Psychological time of personality. Kiev,Ukraine: Naukova Dumka.

Gorman, B. S., & Wessman, A. E. (1977). Images, values, and concepts of time in psychological research. In B. S. Gorman &A. E. Wessman (Eds.), The personal experience of time (pp. 217–263). New York: Plenum.

Hall, P.A. & Fong, G. T. (2007). Temporal-self-regulation theory: A model for individual health behavior. Helth Psychology Review, 1(1):6-52.

Hofmann, W., Friese, M. & Strack, F. (2009). Impulse and Self-Control From a Dual-Systems Perspective. A Journal of the Association for Psychological Science, Vol. 4, No. 2, 162-176.

Huić, A., Krznarić, T. i Kamenov, Ž. (2018). Time perspective, perceived stress, self-control and relationship satisfaction in heterosexual dating relationships of emerging adults. Psicologia, Vol. 32(1), 63-78.

Joireman, J., Balliet, D., Sprott, D., Spangenberg, E. & Schultz, J. (2008). Consideration of future consequences, ego-depletion and self-control: Support for distinguishing between CFC-Immediate and CFC-Future sub-scales. Personaliti and individual differences, 45, 15-21.

Kim, J., Hong, H., Lee, J. & Hyun, M-H. (2017). Effects of time perspective and self-control on procrastination and Internet addiction. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, Jun; 6(2): 229–236.

Kochanska, G., Coy, K.C. & Murray, K.T. (2001). The development of self-regulation in the first four years of life. Child development, 72 (4): 1091-1110.

Kostal, J., Klicperova-Baker, M., Lukavska K., Lukavsky, J. (2015). Short version of Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI-short) with and without the Future-Negative scale, verified on nationally representative samples. Time and Society, 0(0) 1-24, SAGE.

Kostić, A. & Chadee, D. (2017). Time for Time Perspective. In: Kostić, A. & Chadee, D. (Eds.) Time Perspective – Theory and Practice. Palgrave MacMillan.1-8.

Kostić, A. & J. Nedeljković (2017). Samokontrola i samoefikasnost kod studenata. [Self-control and self-efficacy at students]. Godišnjak za sociologiju, XIII/18, 73–83, Filozofski fakutet Univerziteta u Nišu, Niš.

Kostić, A., Nedeljković, J. (2013). Studije vremenskih perspektiva u Srbiji. [Studies of Time Perspectives in Serbia]. Niš: Punta.

Kostić, A., Pejičić, M. & Chadee, D. (2017). Hugging the Past: The Way We Were and the Way We Are. In: Kostić, A. & Chadee, D. (Eds.) Time Perspective – Theory and Practice. Palgrave MacMillan. 143-165.

Lennings, C. J. (1996). Self-efficacy and temporal orientation as predictors of treatment outcome in severely dependent alcoholics. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 14, 71–79.

Lewin, K. (1942). Field Theory and Learning in Social Sciences. In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Field Theory in Social Science, Selected Theoretical Papers (pp. 212-230). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

Masten, A. S., & Coatsworth, J. D. (1998). The Development of Competence in Favorable and Unfavorable Environments: Lessons from Research on Successful Children. American Psychologist, 53, pp. 205–220.

Metcalfe, J., & Mischel, W. (1999). A hot/cool system analysis of delay of gratification: Dynamics of willpower. Psychological Review,106, 3–19.

Mischel, W., Shoda, Y. & Rodriguez, M.L. (1989). Delay of gratification in children. Science, Ner Series, Vol. 244, No. 4907, pp. 933-938.

Muraven, M., & Baumeister, R. F. (2000). Self-regulation and depletion of limited resources: Does self-control resemble a muscle? Psychological Bulletin, 126(2), 247-259.

Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. New York: Oxford University Press and Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Romer, D., Duckworth, A.L., Sznitman, S., & Park, S. (2010). Can adolescents learn self-control? Delay of gratification in the development of control over risk taking. PreventionScience, 11(3), 319–330.

Rothbaum, R., Weisz, J. R., & Snyder, S. S. (1982). Changing the world and changing the self: A two-process model of perceived control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, pp. 5–37. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.42.1.5

Steinberg, L.A. (2008) Social Neuroscience Perspective on Adolescent Risk-Taking. Developmental Review, 28, 78-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2007.08.002.

Tangney, J. P., Baumeister, R. F., & Boone, A. L. (2004). High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success. Journal of Personality, 72, pp. 271–322. doi: 10.1111/j.0022-3506.2004.00263.x

Van Beek, W., Berghuis, H., Kerkhof, A., & Beekman, A. (2011). Time perspective, personality, and psychopathology: Zimbardo’s time perspective inventory in psychiatry. Time & Society, 20(3), 364–374.

Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (1999). Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual differences metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1271–1288.

Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (2008). The Time Paradox: The New Psychology of Time That Will Change Your Life. New York: Free Press.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22190/TEME180412019K

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Print ISSN: 0353-7919
Online ISSN: 1820-7804